Publications

Publications and reports on ecology and natural resource management in northwest Belize
Documents are organized in the sequence:  1) Environmental History, Paleoenvironments;  2) Environment, Plants, Vegetation;  3) Animals;  4) Natural Resource Management.  Some documents are listed in two categories.

 

ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY, PALEOENVIRONMENTS

Beach, T, S. Luzzadder-Beach, D. Cook. S. Krause, C. Doyle, S. Eshleman, G. Wells, N. Dunning, M. Brennan, N. Brokaw, M. Cortes-Rincon, G. Hammond, R. Terry , D. Trein, and S. Ward. 2018. Stability and instability on Maya Lowlands tropical hillslope soils. Geomorphology. 305:185–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2017.07.027

Ross, N. J.  2011.  Modern tree species composition reflects ancient Maya “forest gardens” in northwest Belize.  Ecological Applications 21:75-84.

Ross, N. J., and T. F. Rangel.  2011.  Ancient Maya agroforestry echoing through spatial relationships in the extant forest of NW Belize.  Biotropica 43:141-148.

Scientia staff,  N. Brokaw, and S. E. Ward.  2016.  Cooperation reveals legacy of ancient land use.  Scientia 104:38-40.  www.scientiapublications.com/dr-nicholas-brokaw-and-dr-sheila-ward-cooperation-reveals-legacy-of-ancient-land-use-university-of-puerto-rico-rio-piedras/

Thompson, K. M., T. M. Culley, A. M. Zumberger, and D. L. Lentz.  2015.  Genetic variation and structure in the neotropical tree, Manilkara zapota (L) P. Royen (Sapotaceae) used by the ancient Maya.  Tree Genetics & Genomes 11:40   DOI 10.1007/s11295-015-0867-9

 

ENVIRONMENT, PLANTS, VEGETATION

Alcorn, P. W.  1994.  The chicle tree (Manilkara zapota) in northwest Belize: Natural history, forest floristics, and management.  Master’s thesis.  Department of Botany, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida USA.

Billings, S.  1996.  Water use of tropical vegetation in Belize, Central America: (1) A coffee plantation and a natural upland forest; and (2) two nearby swamp forests.  Master’s thesis, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina USA.  billings-1996

Bridgewater, S., A. Ibañez, J. A. Ratter, and P. Furley.  2002.  Vegetation classification and floristics of the savannas and associated wetlands of the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area, Belize.  Edinburgh Journal of Botany 59:421-442.  doi.org/10.1017/S0960428602000252

Brokaw, N.  2001.  A history of plant ecology in Belize.  Journal of Belizean Affairs 3:1-39.  a-history-of-plant-ecology-in-belize. A History of Plant Ecology in Belize, Brokaw  [The editor of this journal mixed up figures among articles and did not send galleys to the author for correction.  Hence the ragged appearance from reconstructing the article for this PDF.]

Brokaw, N., and E. P. Mallory.  1993.  Vegetation of the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area, Belize.  Manomet Bird Observatory, Manomet, Massachusetts USA.  Vegetation of Rio Bravo

Brokaw, N., and S. E. Ward.  2016.  Vegetation.  Pages 367-371 in W. R. T. Witschey (ed.).  Encyclopedia of the Ancient Maya.  Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, Maryland.

Brokaw, N., M. Peña-Chocarro, S. Knapp, and S. E. Ward.  2016.  Trees of La Milpa: Field Identification of Trees in the La Milpa Area, Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area, Belize.  162 pages.  trees-of-la-milpa-belize-compressed

Iremonger, S., and N. Brokaw.  1995.  Vegetation classification and map of Belize.  Appendix 1 in: Towards a National Protected Area Systems Plan for Belize: Synthesis Report.  Programme for Belize, Belize City, Central America.  iremonger-and-brokaw-1995

Kellman, M., Tackaberry, R., N. Brokaw, and J. Meave.  1994.  Tropical gallery forests.  Research and Exploration 10:92-103.

O’Hara, J. L.  1998.  Monitoring non-timber forest product harvest for ecological sustainability: A case study of huano (Sabal mauritiiformis) in the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area, Belize.  Pages 195-208 in R. B. Primack, D. Bray, H. A. Galletti, and I. Ponciano (eds.).  Timber, Tourists, and Temples: Conservation and Development in the Maya Forest of Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico.  Island Press, Washington, D.C.

O’Hara, J. L.  1999.  An ecosystem approach to monitoring non-timber forest product harvest: The case study of bayleaf palm (Sabal mauritiiformis) in the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area, Belize.  Doctor of Forestry dissertation, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut USA.

Peña-Chocarro, M., S. Knapp, N. Brokaw, N. Bonilla, A. L. de MacVen, J. J. Ortíz, E. de Pöll, J. Tun-Garrido, D. Galicia, and D. Alexander.  2011.  Árboles del Mundo Maya.  UVA Impresores S.A., Madrid, Spain.  263 pages.

Schulze, M. D., and D. F. Whitacre.  1999.  A classification and ordination of the tree community of Tikal National Park, Petén, Guatemala.  Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 41:169-297.  [This excellent study applies well to the forests of northwest Belize.]  schulze-and-whitacre-1999

Stuart, N, T. Barratt, and C. Place.  2006.  Classifying the Neotropical savannas of Belize using remote sensing and ground survey.  Journal of Biogeography 33:476-490.  [This paper is based on savannas in the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area, northwest Belize.]

Tackaberry, R., N. Brokaw, M. Kellman, and E. Mallory.  1997.  Estimating species richness in tropical forest: the missing species extrapolation technique.  Journal of Tropical Ecology 13:449-458.

Thompson, K. M., T. M. Culley, A. M. Zumberger, and D. L. Lentz.  2015.  Genetic variation and structure in the neotropical tree, Manilkara zapota (L) P. Royen (Sapotaceae) used by the ancient Maya.  Tree Genetics & Genomes 11:40   DOI 10.1007/s11295-015-0867-9

Weiher, W. M.  1996.  The influence of edaphic conditions on the composition, structure, and foliar chemistry of four tropical forest communities in northwestern Belize, Central America.  Master’s thesis, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina USA.  weiher-1996

Whitacre, D. F., and M. D. Schulze.  2012.  The Maya forest.  Pages 11-26 in D. F. Whitacre (ed.).  Neotropical Birds of Prey: Biology and Ecology of a Forest Raptor Community.  Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.  [Excellent overview of environment, seasonality, fauna, and vegetation of Tikal; applies well to northwest Belize.]

Wright, A. C. S., D. H. Romney, R. H. Arbuckle, and V. E. Vial.  1959.  Land in British Honduras.  Colonial Research Publication No. 24.  Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London.

 

ANIMALS

Fragoso, J. M., D. I Rumiz, D. E. Hunter, G. Silva-López, L. E. Grober, and S. K. Jacobson.  1990.  Wildlife inventory of the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area: Part I: Ungulates and primates.  Program for Studies in Tropical Conservation, Department of Wildlife and Range Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida USA.  fragoso-et-al-ungulates-and-primates-rbcma-1990

Hay-Smith, L., A. J. Novaro, M. Suarez, M. Marquez, S. Walker, and L. Wilkins.  1990.  Wildlife survey of the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area, Belize: Part 2a: Small mammals; Part 2b: Carnivores.  Program for Studies in Tropical Conservation, Department of Wildlife and Range Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida USA.  hay-smith-novaro-et-al-small-mammals-and-carnivores-rbcma-1990

Mallory, E. P., N. V. L. Brokaw, and S. C. Hess. 2004.  Coping with capture rate bias: Canopy height and several extrinsic factors.  Studies in Avian Biology 29:151-160.  mallory-et-al-2004

Monette, V. D., M. J. Kelly, and R. Buchholz.  2020.  Human disturbance and the activity patterns and temporal overlap of tapirs and jaguars in reserves of NW Belize.  Biotropica 52:&&&, DOI: 10.1111/btp.12834 

Polisar, J.  early 1990s.  An inventory of the turtle fauna of the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area: A preliminary report.  Department of Wildlife and Range Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida USA.  polisar-turtles-rbcma

Whitacre, D. F. (ed.).  Neotropical Birds of Prey: Biology and Ecology of a Forest Raptor Community.  Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.  [Applies well to northwest Belize.]

Whitman, A. A., J. M. Hagan, III, and N. V. L. Brokaw.  1997.  A comparison of two bird survey techniques used in a subtropical forest.  Condor 99:955-965.

Whitman, A. A., J. M. Hagan, III, and N. V. L. Brokaw.  1998.  Effects of selection  logging on birds in northern Belize.  Biotropica 30:449-457.

 

NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Alcorn, P. W.  1994.  The chicle tree (Manilkara zapota) in northwest Belize: Natural history, forest floristics, and management.  Master’s thesis.  Department of Botany, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida USA.

Alcorn, P. W.  2000.  Chicle (Manilkara zapota).  Pages 43-54 in  P. Shanley, A. R. Pierce, S. A. Laird, and A. Guillen (eds).  The Management and Marketing of NTFPs: Certification as a Tool to Promote Sustainability.  Rainforest Alliance, New York, New York USA.  alcorn-manilkara-2000

Alder, D.  1992.  Re-analysis of broadleaf forest inventories 1969-1981: Techniques and preliminary results.  Forest Planning and Management Project, Belize, Belmopan, Belize.  alder-inventories-1992 [large file]

Alder, D.  1993.  An assessment of broadleaf forest resources and sustainable yield in Belize.  Belize Forest Planning and Management Project, Consultancy Report No. 11, Belmopan, Belize.  alder-forest-resources-1993

Arevalo, B., J. Valladarez, S. Muschamp, E. Kay, A. Finkral, A. Roopsind, and F. E. Putz.  2016.  Effects of reduced-impact selective logging on palm regeneration in Belize.  Forest Ecology and Management 369:155–160.

Brokaw, N. V. L.  1989.  Tropical Forestry Action Plan: Belize conservation issues and recommendations.  In M. E. Arnold, F. B. Armitage, W. L. Bender, N. V. L. Brokaw, H. Hilmi, J. R. Palmer, and S. L. Pringle.  1989.  Belize Tropical Forestry Action Plan.  Overseas Development Administration, London.  tfap-conservation

Brokaw, N. V. L., A. A. Whitman, R. Wilson, J. M. Hagan, N. Bird, E. P. Mallory, L. K. Snook, P. J. Martins, D. Novelo, D. White, and E. Losos.  1998.  Toward sustainable forestry in Belize.  Pages 225-239 in R. B. Primack, D. Bray, H. A. Galletti, and I. Ponciano (eds.).  Timber, Tourists, and Temples: Conservation and Development in the Maya Forest of Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico.  Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Hartshorn, G., L. Nicolait, L. Hartshorn, G. Bevier, R. Brightman, J. Cal, A. Cawich, W. Davidson, R. Dubois, C. Dyer, J. Gibson, W. Hawley, J. Leonard, R. Nicolait, D. Weyer, H. White, and C. Wright.  1984.  Belize Country Environmental Profile: A Field Study.  Robert Nicolait and Associates, Ltd., Belize City, Belize.  belize-environmental-profile

Martins, P.  1996.  Final Technical Report of the results of CATIE’s Silvicultural Treatment Project in Belize. https://mayaforestbelize.files.wordpress.com/2020/07/martins-liberation-thinning.pdf

Monette, V. D., M. J. Kelly, and R. Buchholz.  2020.  Human disturbance and the activity patterns and temporal overlap of tapirs and jaguars in reserves of NW Belize.  Biotropica, 52:&&&.  https://doi.org/10.1111/btp.12834

O’Hara, J. L.  1998.  Monitoring non-timber forest product harvest for ecological sustainability: A case study of huano (Sabal mauritiiformis) in the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area, Belize.  Pages 195-208 in R. B. Primack, D. Bray, H. A. Galletti, and I. Ponciano (eds.).  Timber, Tourists, and Temples: Conservation and Development in the Maya Forest of Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico.  Island Press, Washington, D.C.

O’Hara, J. L.  1999.  An ecosystem approach to monitoring non-timber forest product harvest: The case study of bayleaf palm (Sabal mauritiiformis) in the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area, Belize.  Doctor of Forestry dissertation, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut USA.

Oliver, P.  1994.  A resource assessment of the pilot chicle harvest in the Rio Bravo Conservation And Management Area, Belize, 1993-94.  Programme for Belize, Belize City, Belize.  oliver-chicle-1994

Snook, L., P. Negreros-Castillo, and J. O’Connor. 2005.  Supervivencia y crecimiento de plántulas de caoba en aperturas de diferentes tamaños, creadas de tres diferentes maneras en la Selva Maya de Belice y México. [Survival and growth of mahogany seedlings in openings of different sizes created using three different techniques in the Maya Forest of Mexico and Belize].  Recursos Naturales y Ambiente 44: 91-99.

Toledo, M., and L. Snook. 2005. Efectos de la dispersión de semillas y tratamientos silviculturales en la regeneración natural de la caoba (Swietenia macrophylla King) en Belice [The effect of seed dispersal and silvicultural treatments on the natural regeneration of mahogany in Belize]. Recursos Naturales y Ambiente 44:68-75.

Weaver, P. L., and O. A. Sabido.  1997.  Mahogany in Belize: A Historical Perspective.  General Technical Report IITF-2, USDA Forest Service.  Weaver & Sabido, Mahogany in Belize

Whitman, A. A., N. V. L. Brokaw, and J. M. Hagan, III.  1997.  Forest damage caused by selection logging of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in northern Belize.  Forest Ecology and Management 92:87-96.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(96)03941-2

Whitman, A. A., J. M. Hagan, III, and N. V. L. Brokaw.  1998.  Effects of selection  logging on birds in northern Belize.  Biotropica 30:449-457.