List of plants

Cecropia peltata, guarumo

The list of plants given below is incomplete and outdated and will be updated, but it gives you an idea of species present in the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area. 

Download this list:  plants-of-rio-bravo


Nicholas Brokaw1, Mark Schulze2, Elizabeth P. Mallory1, Charlotte Taylor3, and Peter W. Alcorn4

1Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences, Box 1770, Manomet, Massachusetts 02345 USA; fax 508 224-9220; e-mail:

2Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 USA

3Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166

4320 S.E. Ninth Street, Gainesville, Florida 32601 USA

August 1998

Listed below are plant species of the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area (RBCMA), with a few additional species from the adjacent land of Gallon Jug Agroindustries, Inc.  The RBCMA covers about 104,000 hectares in northwest Belize at approximately 17°45’ N and 88°55’ W.  It is in the subtropical moist life zone of the Holdridge Life Zone System (Hartshorn et al. 1984) and receives about 1500 mm of rainfall per year, with a dry season in the early part of the year.  The area ranges from about 20 to 220 m elevation, with small hills, much fairly level terrain, seasonally wet depressions, and a few ravines and steep escarpments.  Soils are limestone-derived.  Major vegetation types include: upland forest in a range of subtle variety, cohune palm (Attalea cohune) forest, riparian forest, scrub swamp forest (“bajo”), savanna, marsh, and wamil (overgrown milpa).  The RBCMA is managed by the Programme for Belize.

Many of the species in the list have been identified at the Missouri Botanical Garden (MBG) from specimens collected in the RBCMA by N. Brokaw and M. Schulze from October 1991 to June 1992.  A few were identified by N. Brokaw (noted as “det. N.B.”) at the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University, or by botanists at the New York Botanical Garden.  Those specimens identified at herbaria are indicated by the name of a botanical authority following the species name and a specimen collection number (Brokaw & Schulze) in the appropriate column.  For genera that have been formally identified from a specimen, yet for which there was not adequate material to determine the species, no botanical authority is indicated, but a collection number is given.  In this list some species identifications by the MBG are qualified by “cf.”, meaning usually that the collection appears to be the species named but additional material is needed for a firm identification.  Some species names in the list without the qualifying “cf.” are followed by multiple collection numbers that include both firm and qualified identifications.  In the list of palms, names from the identifcations at the MBG are used, but new names from the recent work by Henderson et al. (1995) are given in brackets.

Species in the list without collection numbers have usually only been identified in the field (N. Brokaw) and should be considered provisional records until specimens are collected and formally identified.  Collecting and field identification by Brokaw and Schulze have concentrated on trees.

We emphasize that this is a preliminary plant list; many additional plant species are present at in the RBCMA.  Only a tiny fraction of species in the non-tree growth forms in the RBCMA is listed.

Common names (Wright et al. 1959, Hartshorn et al. 1984), and growth form as observed in the RBCMA, are also given in the list.  Meanings of growth form codes are:

Tl  large tree: mature individuals greater than 20 m height
Tm  medium tree: mature individuals 10 – 20 m height
Ts  small tree: mature individuals less than 10 m in height
T  tree: mature height unknown to the authors
S  shrub: usually multiple stemmed; mature individuals less than 5 m in height
H  herb
L  liana (vine)
He  hemi-epiphyte
St  strangler

Collection numbers with an asterisk (*) indicate specimens deposited in the herbarium at the MBG.  Duplicates of these, as well as the other specimens, are in possession of N. Brokaw and will eventually be deposited in herbaria in Belize.  Exotic species are indicated by two asterisks (**) following the species name.

We thank the many botanists at the MBG who identified our specimens.


Hartshorn, G. S., L. Nicolait, L. Hartshorn, G. Bevier, R. Brightman, J. Cal, A. Cawich, W. Davidson, R. Dubois, C. Dyer, J. Gibson, W. Hawley, J. Leonard, R. Nicolait, D. Weyer, H. White, & C. Wright.  1984.  Belize: Country Environmental Profile: A Field Study.  Robert Nicolait & Associates, Ltd., Belize City, Belize.

Henderson, A., G. Galeano, and R. Bernal.  1995.  Field Guide to the Palms of the Americas.  Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.

Wright, A. C. S., D. H. Romney, R. H. Arbuckle, V. E. Vial.  1959.  Land in British Honduras.  Colonial Research Publication No. 24.  Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London.



Scientific name  botanical authority Common name Form Brokaw & Schulze collection #
Aphelandra deppeana  Schlect. & Cham.   S 2*, 38*, 92*
Astronium graveolens  Jacq. glassy wood, palo mulatto Tl 81
Mangifera indica¨ mango Tm
Metopium brownei  (Jacq.) Urb. black poison wood Tl 295*
Mosquitoxylum jamaicense  Krug & Urb. bastard mahogany Tl 158*
Spondias cf. mombin hog plum Tl 496 det. N.B.
S. radlkoferi  Donn. Sm. hog plum Tl 206
Annona glabra bobwood Tm
A. reticulata custard apple, bullock’s heart Tm
Cymbopetalum sp. Tm
Guatteria sp.?
Malmea cf. depressa  (Baill.) Fries lancewood, wild soursop Ts 448
Xylopia frutescens polewood Tl
Aspidosperma cruenta mylady Tl
A. megalocarpon white mylady Tl
Cameraria belizensis  Standley savanna white poisonwood Tm 332*
Plumeria obtusa zopilote Ts
P. rubra** Spanish jasmine, frangipani Ts
Stemmadenia donnell-smithii  (Rose ex J. D. Smith) Woodson cojotón Tl 45
Tabernaemontana sp. cojón de perro Tm 35*
Thevetia ahouai cojón de mico Ts
Ilex guianensis  (Aubl.) Kuntze cassada, bird berry T 407*
Dendropanax arboreus  (L.) Decne. & Planch. white gombolimbo Tl 137*
D. stenodontus  (Standley) A. C. Smith T 15*
Oreopanax obtusifolius  L. O. Williams He, Tm 217
Scientific name  botanical authority Common name Form Brokaw & Schulze collection #
Asclepias curassavica L. H 68
Matalea gentlei  (Lundell & Standley) Woodson   L 79*, 238*
Sarcostemma bilobum  Hook. & Arn.   L 74*
Amphitecna cf. latifolia  (Miller) Gentry river calabash Ts, S 244*
Arrabidaea cf. florida  P. DC. L 1*
Crescentia cujete calabash Ts
Parmentiera aculeata cow okra Tm
Tabebuia cf. guayacan  (Seem.) Hemsl. cortéz, yellow mayflower Tl 304, 331
T. cf. rosea  (Bertol.) DC. mayflower Tl 470
Tynanthus sp. L
Ceiba aesculifolia Tl
C. pentandra  (L.) Gaertn. ceiba, cotton tree Tl 374
Ochroma lagopus balsa, polak Tl
Pachira aquatica  Aubl. provision tree Tl 476
Pseudobombax ellipticum  (HBK) Dugand. mapola Tl 106
Quararibea cf. funebris  (Llave) Vischer batidos Tm 508 det. N.B.
Bourreria cf. oxyphyllaria wild craboo Tl 509 det. N.B.
Cordia alliodora salmwood, laurel Tl
C. bicolor Tl
C. sebestena ziricote Tm
Bursera simaruba  L. red gombolimbo Tl 90*, 365*
Protium copal  (Schlecht. & Cham.) Engler copal Tm 155, 265*
P. cf. multiramiflorum copal colorado Tm
Forchammeria trifoliata bastard dogwood S
Carica papaya papaya Tm
Scientific name  botanical authority Common name Form Brokaw & Schulze collection #
CARICACEAE (continued)      
Jacaratia dolichaula Wild pawpaw Tm
Crossopetalum gaumeri  (Loes.) Lundell   S 29, 141*, 152, 333*
Chrysobalanus icaco  L. coco plum Ts, S 112*, 403
Hirtella americana  L. pigeon plum Tl 102, 124, 291*, 310*
H. racemosa wild pigeon plum Ts
Licania platypus monkey apple Tl
Calophyllum brasiliense  Cambess. santa maría Tl 294
Clusia chanekiana  Lundell   He 218
Vismia sp. Tm
Cochlospermum vitifolium wild cotton Ts
Bucida buceras  L. bullet tree Tl 118
Combretum cf. laxum  Jacq. L 241
Conocarpus erecta buttonwood Ts
Terminalia amazonia  (Gmel.) Exell nargusta Tl 293
T. catappa** almond Tm
Clibadium arboreum Ts
Eupatorium albicaule old woman’s walking stick Ts
Ipomea heterodoxa  Standley & Steyerm.   L 179*
I. tuxtlensis  House   L 18*
Dichapetalum donnell-smithii  Engler auselín ? 429*
Curatella americana yaha Ts
Tetracera volubilis  L. subsp. mollis (Standley) Kub. L 162*
Scientific name  botanical authority Common name Form Brokaw & Schulze collection #
Diospyros yatesiana  Standl. [Lundell?] T 85
Erythroxylum areolatum  L. redwood Ts 116*
E. rotundifolium  Lunan S 189*, 421*
Adelia barbinervis  Schlect. & Cham. Ts 468
Alchornea latifolia  Sw. fiddlewood Tl 342
Alchorneopsis sp.?
Astrocasia tremula  (Griseb.) Webster Ts 363*
Bernardia interrupta waika ribbon T, S
Cnidoscolus sp. Ts
Croton reflexifolius  HBK Ts 273*, 398, 399, 400, 426, 432, 436, 437, 438
C. sp. Ts, S 183*, 334*, 364*
Drypetes cf. brownii male bullhoof Tl 490 det. N.B.
D. lateriflora  (Sw.) Krug & Urb. Tm 53, 157, 306, 317, 439*
Gymnanthes lucida  Sw. false lignum vitae Tm 134, 292
Jatropha curcas   L. Ts 109
Margaritaria nobilis  L.f. clawberry, ramón macho Tm 463, 477
Phyllanthus sp. Ts
Ricinus communis L.** castor oil bean S
Sapium sp. Tl
Quercus oleoides  Schlect. & Cham. oak Tl 276*
Casearia corymbosa  Kunth paletillo Tm 47, 348*, 383, 469*
C. sylvestris  Sw. wild sage T 285
Hasseltiopsis dioica T
Laetia thamnia  L. Tm 52, 66*, 329*
Zuelania guidonia  (Sw.) Britton & Millsp. water wood Tl 120
Scientific name  botanical authority Common name Form Brokaw & Schulze collection #
Lisianthus axillaris  Hemsl.   S 111*
Voyria sp.   H 262*
Hemiangium excelsum Tm
Lacistema aggregatum  (Berg.) Rusby palo mulato Tm 266*
cf. Licaria peckii  (Lundell) Kosterman timbersweet Tl 129
Nectandra coriacea T
N. martinicensis  Mez T 229
N. salicifolia Tm
Bauhinia sp. cowfoot Ts
Caesalpinia gaumeri warree wood Tl
C. recordii bastard billy webb Tm
Cassia grandis bookut, stinking toe Tl
Haematoxylum campechianum logwood Tm
Schizolobium parahybum quamwood Tl
Swartzia cf. cubensis bastard rosewood Tl 492 det. N.B.
Acacia collinsii  Saff. cockspur, ant thorn Tm 43
A. dolichostachya T
A. glomerosa  Benth. white tamarind Tl 123*, 164, 467, 473, 483
Calliandra belizensis  (Standley) Standley Ts, S 136*, 169*, 440*
C. calothyrsis  Meiss. S? 75
C. emarginata  (Humb. & Bonpl.) Benth. S? 186, 191, 422, 444
Cojoba arborea  (L.) Britton & Rose barba jolote Tl 216
C. gracilifora  (S. F. Blake) Britton & Rose Ts 277*
Dialium guianense T
Enterolobium cyclocarpum tubroos, guanacaste Tl
Inga vera  Willd. guamo, bribri Tm 460*
I. sp.
Lysiloma bahamense salom Tl
(Mimosoideae continued)
Scientific name  botanical authority Common name Form Brokaw & Schulze collection #
Mimosoideae (continued)    
Pithecellobium albicans  (Kunth) Benth. T 256*, 350, 361, 459, 465
P.  insignis  Micheli T 458
P. leucocalyx guacibán Tl
Zapoteca formosa  (Kunth.) H. Hern. subsp. formosa L 64
Zygia peckii  (Rob.) Britton & Rose Ts 289*
Z. stevensonii  (Standley) Record león Ts 107*
Acosmium panamemse billy webb Tl
Andira inermis cabbage bark T
Dalbergia sp. L
Erythrina folkersii coral tree Ts
Gliricidia sepium  (Jacq.) Walp. madre cacao Tm 144
Lonchocarpus castilloi black cabbage bark Tl
L. guatemalensis dogwood, turtle bone Tl
L. rugosus black cabbage bark Tl
L. sp.
Myroxylon balsamum balsam of Peru Tl
Ormosia sp. hormigo Tl
Piscidia piscipula may bush, jabín Tm
Platymiscium yucatanum granadillo Tl
Pterocarpus cf. hayesii mountain kaway Tl 510 det. N.B.
Vatairea lundellii bitter wood Tl
Dracaena americana  J. D. Smith candle wood Tm 138*
Strychnos panamensis  Seeman   L 37*
Phoradendron sp. (parasitic epiphyte) S 117*
Psittacanthus calyculatus  (DC.) Don (parasitic epiphyte) S 247*
Bunchosia sp. T
Byrsonima bucidaefolia crabboo T
B. crassifolia crabboo Tm
Scientific name  botanical authority Common name Form Brokaw & Schulze collection #
Hampea stipitata  S. Wats. moho Tm 27*
Malviscus arboreus  Cav. S 11*
Clidemia octona  (Bonpl.) L. O. Wms S 62*
Miconia argentea  (SW.) DC. white maya Tm 323*
M. impetiolaris maya Ts
M. longifolia  (Aubl.) DC. T 209
Mouriri myrtilloides jug, half crown Tm
Cedrela mexicana  L. cedar, Spanish cedar Tl 340*
Guarea glabra  Vahl cramantee Tm 314*, 354*
G. grandifolia wild akee Tl
Melia azedarach** paradise tree T
Swietenia macrophylla  King mahogany, caoba Tl 296*, 345
Trichilia havanensis  Jacq. bastard lime Tm 234
T. minutiflora  Standley wild lime Tm 39
T. pallida  Sw. carbón del río Tm 44*
Hyperbaena winzerlingii  Standley Ts 193
Brosimum alicastrum  Sw. ramón, breadnut Tl 40, 379*
Castilla elastica  Sessé wild rubber Tl 100
Cecropia peltata  L. trumpet, guarumo Tm 82*, 370*
Coussapoa sp. He,Tl 210
Dorstenia cf. contrajerva  L. H 451*
Ficus americana  Aubl. fig He 384
F. insipida  Willd. fig, amate Tl 356
F. maxima  Miller Tl 33, 34*, 214*, 455, 478
F. cf. padifolia St
F. cf. popenoei St
F. spp. fig T, St 208, 302*, 372, 386
Maclura tinctoria  (L.) Steudel fustic Tl 450
Pseudolmedia cf. spuria  (Sw.) Griseb. cherry Tm 131
Trophis racemosa  (L.) Urb. red breadnut, white ramón Tm 385
Scientific name  botanical authority Common name Form Brokaw & Schulze collection #
Myrica cerifera  L. tea bark Ts, S 272*
Ardisia cf. compressa  HBK male blossom berry grape Ts 19*, 113*, 337*, 431
Rapanea sp. S
Calyptranthes cf. chytraculia S, Ts 511 det. N.B.
C. karlingii  Standl. S 253
Eucalyptus sp.** Tl
Eugenia rhombea  S
Myrciaria floribunda
Pimenta dioica allspice Tl 498 det. N.B.
Neea psychotrioides  J. D. Smith   Ts 8*, 150, 237*, 279*, 290
Ouratea lucens  (HBK) Engler Ts 261*
O. nitida  (Sw.) Engler bastard blossom berries Ts, S 114*, 446*
Schoepfia schreberi  J. F. Gmel. Ts 187, 188, 441
PALMAE   (names in brackets are from recent taxonomy of Henderson et al. 1995)
Acoelorraphe wrightii  (H. Wendl.) Becccari palmetto Tm 271*
[Acrocomia aculeata] Tm
Bactris major porknoboy Tm
B. mexicana  Mart. (including B. trichophylla  Burret) porknoboy Tm 180*
Chamaedorea sp. xate Ts 26*, 80
Cocos nucifera** coconut Tl
Cryosophila argentea  H. Bartlett

[Cryosophila stauracantha]

give-and-take Tm 225, 226*
Desmoncus orthacanthos basket tie-tie L
Gaussia maya  (Cook) Quero & Reed Tm 319*
Scientific name  botanical authority Common name Form Brokaw & Schulze collection #
PALMAE  (continued; names in brackets are from recent palm taxonomy of Henderson et al. 1995)
Orbignya cohune  (Mart.) Dahlgren (“probably”, specimen inadequate, MBG)

[Attalea cohune]

cohune Tl 487
Roystonea oleracea [R. regia] royal palm Tl
Sabal mauritiiformis  (Karst.) Griseb. & H. Wendl. (“probably”, specimen inadequate) botán palm, bayleaf palm Tl 486
Achatocarpus nigricans  Triana   Ts 50, 351, 352
Rivina humilis  L.   L 86*
Pinus caribaea Caribbean pine Tl
Piper aduncum Spanish elder Ts
P. auritum cowfoot, bullhoof Ts
P. jacquemontianum  Kunth S 23*, 430*
P. marginatum  Jacq. S 55*
P. pseudo-puligeneum  C. DC. S 56*
P. psilorrhachis  C. DC. Spanish elder S 63*
P. yucatanense  C. DC. S 22*, 278*
P. sp. S 202
Coccoloba acapulcensis Tm
C. belizensis  Standley wild grape Tl 353*
C. cozumelensis  Hemsl. wild grape Tm 163*, 309, 449
C. cf. mayana  Lundell T 172*
C. reflexiflora  Standley Ts, S 394
Gymnopodium floribundum  Rolfe bastard logwood Ts, S 190, 280*
Neomillspaughia paniculata  (J. D. Smith) Blake L 83*
Roupala montana  Aubl. (“probably”, MBG) Ts 258
Scientific name  botanical authority Common name Form Brokaw & Schulze collection #
Colubrina cf. ferruginosa  Brogn. T 390*
Gouania polygama  (Jacq.) Urb. L 122*, 194*
Krugiodendron ferreum  (Vahl) Urb. axemaster, quebracho Tl 479
Cassipourea cf. guianensis  Aubl. water wood Tm 156*, 165
Rhizophora mangle red mangrove S
Alibertia edulis  (L. Rich.) A. Rich wild guava Ts 9*
Alseis yucatanensis  Standley wild mammee Tl 36*
Amaioua corymbosa  HBK Ts? 93*
Appunia guatemalensis  J. D. Smith L 58*
Cephaelis sp.
Chomelia protracta  (Bartl.) Standley S 254*
Cosmocalyx spectabilis  Standley Tl 232*, 330
Coutarea hexandra  (Jacq.) K. Schum. T 349, 371, 454, 456, 457
Faramea occidentalis  (L.) Rich. Ts 251*
Genipa americana Tl
Geophila repens  (L.) I. M. Johnst. H 4*
Guettarda combsii  Urb. glassy wood Tl 97*
G. elliptica  Sw. prickle wood T 406, 464
G. macrosperma  J. D. Smith ?T 5*
Hamelia patens  Jacq. S 20, 25*
Psychotria chiapensis  Standley cassada, white wood T 287, 346*, 355*
P. costivenia  Griseb. S 12*, 21*, 59*, 67*, 70*, 215, 283, 315*, 325*
P. domingensis  Jacq. S 32*
P. fruticetorum  Standley S 184*, 255, 312, 313*
P. horizontalis  Sw. S 13*, 475*
P. pubescens  Sw. S 30, 71*, 108, 239*, 248*, 275*
P. tenuifolia  Sw. S 14*
Randia aculeatea  L. S 89*, 143, 185*, 324*, 417, 442, 445
Simira salvadorensis  (Standley) Steyerm. john crow redwood Tl 196*
Scientific name  botanical authority Common name Form Brokaw & Schulze collection #
Amyris balsamifera  L. Tm 433*
Citrus sp.** citrus Tm
Zanthoxylum cf. belizense prickly yellow Tl
Z. caribaeum  Lam. bastard prickly yellow Tm 453
Z. juniperinum  Poepp. black prickly yellow Tl 341
Z. sp. Tl
Allophylus cominia  (L.) Sw. cherry, huesillo Tm or Ts 17*
Blomia prisca  (Standley) Lundell Tl 99, 301*, 316, 380*, 484
Cupania belizensis  Standley bastard grand betty Tm 171, 321*
C. rufescens white grande betty Tm
Exothea diphylla uayamcox Tm
E. paniculata T
Matayba apetala  (Madfad.) Radlk. boyjob Tl 320*
Paullinia cururu  L. L 7*
Sapindus saponaria soap-seed tree Tl
Talisia oliviformis  (Kunth) Radlk.   Tl 174, 176
T. floresii  Standley T 219
Thouinia paucidentata  Radkl. Tm 125*
Chrysophyllum mexicanum  Brandege ex Standley wild star apple Tm 24*, 269*
Dipholis salicifolia cháchiga, mijico Tl
Manilkara zapota  L. sapodilla, sapote Tl 130*
M. chicle chiquebul, chicle macho Tl
Mastichodendron belizense cream tree Tl
Pouteria cf. amygdalina  (Standley) Baehni silión Tl 42, 205, 252*
P. campechiana  (HBK) Baehni mammee ciruela T 308*, 381
P. durlandii  (Standley) Baehni mammee cerera Tm 126*, 233
P. cf. sapota  (Jacq.) Moore & Stearn or P. cf. mammosa  (L.) Cronq. mammee apple Tl 101, 132, 360
P. reticulata  (Engler) Eyma zapotillo Tl 305, 369*
Scientific name  botanical authority Common name Form Brokaw & Schulze collection #
Simarouba cf. amara  Aubl. negrito Tl 139, 358
Picramnia antidesma  Sw. Ts 146, 245*
Cestrum racemosum  Ruiz & Pavon night bloom Tm 376
Solanum nudum  Kunth. S 31*
S. rugosum Ts
Byttneria aculeata  Jacq. L 121*
Guazuma ulmifolia  Lam. bay cedar, bastard cedar Tm 462
Theobroma cacao** cacao Ts
Ternstroemia tepezapote  Schlect. & Cham. river craboo Tl 434*
Jacquinia macrocarpa  Cav. knock-me-back S 28*, 366*, 435
Trichospermum campbellii moho, mahao Tl
Heliocarpus donnell-smithii broadleaf moho Tl
Luehea seemannii caulote Tl
L. speciosa  Willd. caulote, mountain moho Tm 65*, 220*
Turnera aromatica  Arbo   S 212*
Ampelocera hottlei  (Standley) Standley female bullhoof Tl 41, 264*
Celtis iguanea  (Jacq.) Sarg. muc L 514  (det. N. B.)
Trema micrantha  (L.) Blume capulín Tm 96*
Urera baccifera cow itch H, S
Scientific name  botanical authority Common name Form Brokaw & Schulze collection #
Aegiphila monstrosa  Moldenke vara blanca S 297*
Callicarpa acuminata pukin
Gmelina arborea** Tm
Rehdera penninervia  Standley ex Moldenke hinge hinge Tl 94, 228*, 230
Tectona grandis** teak Tl
Stachytarpheta miniacea  Moldenke S 223*
Vitex gaumeri  Greenm. fiddlewood, yashnik Tl 119
Cissus verticilata  (L.) Nicolson & Jarvis (includes C. sicyoides L.)   L 3*
Orthion malpighiifolium S
Rinorea guatemalensis  (Wats.) Bartl. wild coffee Ts or Tm 104, 128*, 282*
R. hummelii wild coffee T
Vochysia hondurensis yemeri Tl

*Specimen deposited at the Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium

**Exotic species